Don Norman's magnum opus
Totally revolutionize how I personally look at design
Introduction to Human Centered Design for a wider audience
It is not the user's fault when they have trouble with completing a task
4 main design principles
Two main actions: open the door, close the door
Hinges, supporting columns, push plates tell user where to interact
By removing those design features, users lose visibility & run into issues
With doors that push, the designer must provide signals that naturally indicate where to push. These need not destroy the aesthetics.
Put a vertical plate on the side to be pushed, nothing on the other. Or make the supporting pillars visible. The vertical plate and supporting pillars are natural signals, naturally interpreted, without any need to be conscious of them.
What are the fundamental properties of an object?
What do these properties tell you about interacting with that object?
A chair affords ("is for") support and, therefore, affords sitting. A chair can also be carried.
Glass is for seeing through, and for breaking. Wood is normally used for solidity, opacity, support, or carving.
Flat, porous, smooth surfaces are for writing on. So wood is also for writing on.
When affordances are taken advantage of, the user knows what to do just by looking: no picture, label, or instruction is required.
…When simple things need pictures, labels, or instructions, the design has failed.
Your design should show how the thing it interacts with works
Mapping: How do the controls map to the effects of those controls?
What do you do in a car to turn the wheels?
Feedback: How do you provide the user with the right information to help them control the thing?
When someone makes a mistake, how do you tell them?
Even if you haven't seen or used scissors, you can see that the number of possible actions is limited
Affordances: The holes all but ask to insert something into them
Constraints: The big hole fits multiple fingers, the small hole fits only one
Conceptual Model: Obvious in that you move the holes and it moves two blades toward each other
What does a link look like? A button?
What does a web page look like? A web app?
How can we provide better feedback to users?
How can we simplify the steps needed for a task to be completed?